Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. The Lancet. 2020;395(10223):507–13.
WHO. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard Data 2021.
Legido-Quigley H, Asgari N, Teo YY, Leung GM, Oshitani H, Fukuda K, et al. Are high-performing health systems resilient against the COVID-19 epidemic? The Lancet. 2020;395(10227):848–50.
Shamasunder S, Holmes SM, Goronga T, Carrasco H, Katz E, Frankfurter R, et al. COVID-19 reveals weak health systems by design: why we must re-make global health in this historic moment. Glob Public Health. 2020;15(7):1083–9.
Li S, Wang Y, Xue J, Zhao N, Zhu T. The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: a study on active Weibo users. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(6):2032.
Hossain MM, Tasnim S, Sultana A, Faizah F, Mazumder H, Zou L, et al. Epidemiology of mental health problems in COVID-19: a review. F1000Research. 2020;9:636.
van Ballegooijen H, Goossens L, Bruin RH, Michels R, Krol M. Concerns, quality of life, access to care and productivity of the general population during the first 8 weeks of the coronavirus lockdown in Belgium and the Netherlands. BMC Health Serv Res. 2021;21(1):1–8.
Horesh D, Kapel Lev-Ari R, Hasson-Ohayon I. Risk factors for psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel: Loneliness, age, gender, and health status play an important role. Br J Health Psychol. 2020;25(4):925–33.
Peters E, Hübner J, Katalinic A. Stress, coping strategies and health-related quality of life during the corona pandemic in April 2020 in Germany. Deutsche Med Wochenschr (1946). 2020;146(2):e11–20.
Banerjee D. The other side of COVID-19: Impact on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding. Psychiatry Res. 2020;288: 112966.
Fineberg NA, Pellegrini L, Burkauskas J, Clarke A, Laws KR. Individual obsessive-compulsive traits are associated with poorer adjustment to the easing of COVID-19 restrictions. J Psychiatr Res. 2022;148:21–6.
Fineberg NA, Pellegrini L, Wellsted D, Hall N, Corazza O, Giorgetti V, et al. Facing the “new normal”: how adjusting to the easing of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions exposes mental health inequalities. J Psychiatr Res. 2021;141:276–86.
Hassoulas A, Umla-Runge K, Zahid A, Adams O, Green M, Hassoulas A, et al. Investigating the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder symptom subtypes and health anxiety as impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. Psychol Rep. 2022;125(6):3006–27.
Asmundson GJ, Abramowitz JS, Richter AA, Whedon M. Health anxiety: current perspectives and future directions. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2010;12(4):306–12.
Asmundson GJ, Taylor S, Carleton RN, Weeks JW, Hadjstavropoulos HD. Should health anxiety be carved at the joint? A look at the health anxiety construct using factor mixture modeling in a non-clinical sample. J Anxiety Disord. 2012;26(1):246–51.
Wheaton MG, Abramowitz JS, Berman NC, Fabricant LE, Olatunji BO. Psychological predictors of anxiety in response to the H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic. Cogn Ther Res. 2012;36(3):210–8.
Asmundson GJ, Taylor S. How health anxiety influences responses to viral outbreaks like COVID-19: What all decision-makers, health authorities, and health care professionals need to know. J Anxiety Disord. 2020;71: 102211.
Roy D, Tripathy S, Kar SK, Sharma N, Verma SK, Kaushal V. Study of knowledge, attitude, anxiety & perceived mental healthcare need in Indian population during COVID-19 pandemic. Asian J Psychiatry. 2020;51: 102083.
Dennis D, Radnitz C, Wheaton MG. A perfect storm? Health anxiety, contamination fears, and COVID-19: lessons learned from past pandemics and current challenges. Int J Cogn Ther. 2021;14:497–513.
Jelinek L, Moritz S, Miegel F, Voderholzer U. Obsessive-compulsive disorder during COVID-19: turning a problem into an opportunity? J Anxiety Disord. 2021;77: 102329.
Alimohammadi F, Setodeh-asl N, Karami A. Designing a model of quality of life in elderly based on perceived stress and tolerance of distress. J Health Care. 2019;21(1):53–65.
Salkovskis PM, Rimes KA, Warwick H, Clark D. The Health Anxiety Inventory: development and validation of scales for the measurement of health anxiety and hypochondriasis. Psychol Med. 2002;32(5):843–53.
Abramowitz JS, Olatunji BO, Deacon BJ. Health anxiety, hypochondriasis, and the anxiety disorders. Behav Ther. 2007;38(1):86–94.
Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav. 1983;24:385–96.
Taghavi SM, Mokarami H, Nazifi M, Choobineh A, Marioryad H, Kujerdi MF. The influence of socio-demographic, health and work-related factors on health-related quality of life among Iranian industrial workers. Health. 2014;6(16):2250–60.
Usefy A, Ghassemi GR, Sarrafzadegan N, Mallik S, Baghaei A, Rabiei K. Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF in an Iranian adult sample. Community Ment Health J. 2010;46(2):139–47.
Sanavio E. Obsessions and compulsions: the Padua Inventory. Behav Res Ther. 1988;26(2):169–77.
Van Oppen P. Obsessions and compulsions: dimensional structure, reliability, convergent and divergent validity of the Padua Inventory. Behav Res Ther. 1992;30(6):631–7.
Abdelghani M, Mahdy R, El-Gohari H. Health anxiety to COVID-19 virus infection and its relationship to quality of life in a sample of health care workers in Egypt: a cross-sectional study. Arch Psychiatry Psychother. 2021;23(1):19–28.
Trougakos JP, Chawla N, McCarthy JM. Working in a pandemic: Exploring the impact of COVID-19 health anxiety on work, family, and health outcomes. J Appl Psychol. 2020;105:1234.
Korkmaz S, Kazgan A, Çekiç S, Tartar AS, Balcı HN, Atmaca M. The anxiety levels, quality of sleep and life and problem-solving skills in healthcare workers employed in COVID-19 services. J Clin Neurosci. 2020;80:131–6.
Shams JH, Mohammadzadeh KA, Maher A. Correlation between health literacy and quality of life with health anxiety in outpatient patients referred to Shahid Beheshti Specialized Polyclinic in Karaj. J Health Promot Manag. 2020;9:1–9.
Taylor S, Asmundson GJ. Hyprochondria. Treating health anxiety: A cognitive-behavioral approach. New York: Guilford Press; 2004.
Hong D, Zhu Y, Yu M. How health anxiety affected obsessive-compulsive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in China: the mediation of difficulties in emotion regulation and the moderation of pathological personality traits. Personal Individ Differ. 2022;185: 111254.
Wheaton MG, Messner GR, Marks JB. Intolerance of uncertainty as a factor linking obsessive-compulsive symptoms, health anxiety and concerns about the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in the United States. J Obs Compuls Relat Disord. 2021;28: 100605.
Sica C, Caudek C, Cerea S, Colpizzi I, Caruso M, Giulini P, et al. Health anxiety predicts the perceived dangerousness of covid-19 over and above intrusive illness-related thoughts, contamination symptoms, and state and trait negative affect. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(4):1933.
Sunderland M, Newby JM, Andrews G. Health anxiety in Australia: prevalence, comorbidity, disability and service use. Br J Psychiatry. 2013;202(1):56–61.
Piacentini J, Langley AK. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children who have obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Clin Psychol. 2004;60(11):1181–94.
Fineberg NA, Pellegrini L, Clarke A, Perera U, Drummond LM, Albert U, et al. Meta-analysis of cognitive behaviour therapy and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of hypochondriasis: Implications for trial design. Compr Psychiatry. 2022;118:152334.
Çelmeçe N, Menekay M. The effect of stress, anxiety and burnout levels of healthcare professionals caring for COVID-19 patients on their quality of life. Front Psychol. 2020;11:3329.
Tejoyuwono AAT, Nugraha RP, Fahdi FK. The effect of mental health status on the quality of life of faculty of medicine students during the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 period. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(E):645–52.
Qi M, Li P, Moyle W, Weeks B, Jones C. Physical activity, health-related quality of life, and stress among the Chinese adult population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(18):6494.
Alhawatmeh H, Alsholol R, Dalky H, Al-Ali N, Albataineh R. Mediating role of resilience on the relationship between stress and quality of life among Jordanian registered nurses during COVID-19 pandemic. Heliyon. 2021;7(11): e08378.
Khodami MA, Seif MH, Koochakzadeh RS, Fathi R, Kaur H, editors. Perceived stress, emotion regulation and quality of life during the Covid-19 outbreak: a multi-cultural online survey. Annales Médico-psychologiques, revue psychiatrique, Elsevier; 2022.
Garbóczy S, Szemán-Nagy A, Ahmad MS, Harsányi S, Ocsenás D, Rekenyi V, et al. Health anxiety, perceived stress, and coping styles in the shadow of the COVID-19. BMC Psychol. 2021;9(1):1–13.
Svensson SJ, Elntib S. Community cohesion during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic: a social antidote to health anxiety and stress. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2021;51:793–808.
Statistics OfN. Coronavirus and the social impacts on Great Britain. 2020.
Mrklas K, Shalaby R, Hrabok M, Gusnowski A, Vuong W, Surood S, et al. Prevalence of perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in health care workers and other workers in Alberta during the COVID-19 pandemic: cross-sectional survey. JMIR Mental Health. 2020;7(9): e22408.
Abba-Aji A, Li D, Hrabok M, Shalaby R, Gusnowski A, Vuong W, et al. COVID-19 pandemic and mental health: prevalence and correlates of new-onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a Canadian province. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(19):6986.
Kracker Imthon A, Antônio Caldart C, do Rosário MC, Fontenelle LF, Constantino Miguel E, Arzeno Ferrão Y. Stressful life events and the clinical expression of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder OCD: an exploratory study. J Clin Med. 2020;9(10):3371.
Cunning C, Hodes M. The COVID-19 pandemic and obsessive–compulsive disorder in young people: systematic review. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2022;27(1):18–34.
Guzick AG, Candelari A, Wiese AD, Schneider SC, Goodman WK, Storch EA. Obsessive–compulsive disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2021;23(11):1–10.